GC/MS and MSDS REPORTS - ESSENTIAL OIL CHEMISTRY

 

Love and Lemons essential oils are fully tested. We provide you with the Analysis Reports so you know exactly what you're buying. 

 

What is the MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet)?

The MSDS is a document that provides the customer with summarized information about a material or chemical product’s properties, how to use it carefully, possible hazards, the protocol in case of emergency, and all the probable uses for the material.

 

What is GC/MS testing?

Gas Chromatography (GC) separates an essential oil into its individual components. It identifies the volatile aromatic compounds present and at what levels.  It shows the chemical makeup of each essential oil, which can inform us about its therapeutic benefits and risks. This process also helps identify if an essential oil is free from contamination and adulteration. In order to benefit from the therapeutic effects of essential oils, they must be 100% pure plant extracts. If an essential oil is adulterated or synthetic, it will not be as effective and can be very harmful, causing allergies, headaches, and sensitivities.

THE CHEMISTRY OF ESSENTIAL OILS

To be able to understand GC/MS reports, it can be useful to learn about the fundamentals of essential oil chemistry. Knowing about the chemical composition of essential oils, allows you to use them more effectively. When analyzing essential oils with a chromatograph, its chemistry can be categorized into two main constituents: hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds.  

Hydrocarbons

The most common type of hydrocarbon present in essential oils are aromatic molecules called terpenes. These mainly consist of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. 

MONOTERPENES

Mostly found in citrus oils such as Lemon, Grapefruit, Orange, Bergamot, Juniper Berry, Conifer oils such as Pine, Fir and Spruce oils, Cypress, Black Pepper and Tea Tree.

Safety:

  • They easily oxidized. Keep bottles closed to minimize contact with air, store in a cool and dark place. Can cause skin irritation and sensitivity when oxidized.

  • Are not soluble in water. When adding to a bath, mix well with a carrier oil. 

 

Therapeutic properties: 

  • Antiseptic effect. 

  • Immune stimulant.

  • Decongestant to the respiratory and the muscular system.

  • Anti-inflammatory: promote circulation, pain relief for muscle pain and stiffness.

  • Antibacterial and may even be antiviral in some cases. Found in Pine, Black Spruce, Cypress and Citrus oils.

  • Penetrates the tissues of the body easily.

  • Great deodorizers and purifiers.

SESQUITERPENES

Evaporate more slowly than monoterpenes as they have heavier molecules, which requires more energy to vaporize. They are less common in essential oils than monoterpenes. Can be found in Ginger, Cedarwood, Manuka, Melissa, Balsam Copaiba, Vetiver, Myrrh, Patchouli, Ylang Ylang and Black Pepper.

Safety: 

  • No safety concerns for the most part.

  • Some essential oils can be irritant to sensitive skin when oxidized.

  • May suppress fetal growth and best avoided during pregnancy.

 

Therapeutic properties: ​

  • Can have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiseptic, analgesic, antiallergenic and antispasmodic properties.

  • Can be cooling and calming​

  • Balancing to the body​​

 

Oxygenated Compounds

In addition to terpene hydrocarbons, we have functional groups. The most common type of functional group in essential oil are oxygenated compounds. 

ALCOHOLS

Gentle, but powerful in action. 

MONOTERPENE ALCOHOLS (MONOTERPENOLS) 

Generally mild and gentle what makes them suitable for everyday use in hygiene and skincare. They are known for their pleasant smell and tonifying effects and are nontoxic. Can be found in Peppermint, Spearmint, Lavender, Citronella, Geranium, Palmarosa, Rose, Jasmine, Ylang Ylang, Sweet Marjoram, Rosemary, Black Pepper, Coriander, Tea Tree, Cypress, Neroli, Petit Grain and few others. ​

 

Safety: 

  • Generally safe on the skin and not known to be irritant to the skin at the exception of peppermint.

  • Essential oils high in menthol should be avoided with children under the age of 5 yrs old as it can be harmful if inhaled, especially by infants.

  • Palmarosa, Geranium, Citronella, Rose and Thyme containing Geraniol can cause mild skin sensitization. Do not exceed a dermal application of 5%.

 

Therapeutic properties:

  • Powerful anti-infectious agents because they have antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-fungal, diuretic and can be antiviral in some cases.

  • Non-toxic and mild on the skin and mucous membranes.

  • Great to support the immune system and a long-term basis.

  • Detoxifying.

  • Can act as a tonic for the nervous system.

  • Emotional balance support

  • Deodorizing, oils like Geranium, Lavender and Bergamot are bacteria inhibitors. 

  • Sedative and calming due to the linalool found in Black Pepper, Coriander and  Lavender. 

  • Menthol is known to have a cooling effect on the body. This component is mainly found in spearmint and peppermint. It is known to be analgesic, decongestant, and anti-inflammatory. Can help soothe muscles and body pain.

  • Essential oils such as black pepper, tea tree, cypress are known to be antiseptic, expectorant, calming, anti-fungal, anti-asthmatic and antibiotic as they contain terpineol and terpinen-4-ol. Terpinen-4-ol contained in tea tree essential oil activates the white blood cells, which can help prevent infections. 

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SESQUITERPENE ALCOHOLS (SESQUITERPENOLS)

Essential oils with high sesquiterpenol content, such as Carrot Seed, Cedarwood, Ginger, Patchouli, Sandalwood, Vetiver, Citronella, Palmarosa, German Chamomile, Celery, Clary sage, Neroli and rose. ​

 

Safety:

  • Sesquiterpenols are generally safe oils and are not known to irritate skin.

  • Do not use it during pregnancy.

 

Therapeutic properties:

  • The therapeutic properties can vary from one individual to another.

  • Grounding, antispasmodic, antibacterial, skin healing, and anti-inflammatory effects.

  • ​Known to be anti-inflammatory, stimulating to the liver and allergenic. 

  • Bisabolol found in german chamomile is known to be a strong anti-inflammatory.

  • Tonic for the veins by reducing congestion. Cedarwood and Citronella are great to use along with a carrier oil.

  • Tonifying to the muscles and nerves, reduces congestion in the veins and lymphatic system.

  • Carrot Seeds stimulate the regeneration of the liver cells.

ALDEHYDES

Aldehydes have a slightly fruity odor. Mainly found in essential oils such as Lemongrass, Citronella, Melissa, Litsea, Lemon, Eucalyptus

 

Safety:

  • They often cause skin irritation and allergic reactions. Some essential oils can be irritating to the skin and the mucous membranes.

  • Aldehyde oils combined with monoterpenols essential oils and carrier oil can be a good balance in blends.

  • Should be avoided internally or for long-term dermal use with people with estrogen-related cancers.

 

Therapeutic properties:

  • Sedative and anti-inflammatory effects when applied in low concentration (1%)

  • Stimulating and warming

  • Calming to the nervous system

  • Antiseptic, antiviral

  • Antispasmodic

  • Antiseptic and bactericide properties

  • Anti-fungal

ETHERS

Essential oils rich in ethers are Fennel and Anise Seed. 

 

Safety:

  • Be careful with skin application as these oils can irritate the skin.

  • Avoid using oils with ethers during pregnancy.

  • Should never be used long-term. 

 

Therapeutic properties:

  • ​Antiseptic, bactericide, carminative, expectorant and fungicide

  • Stimulates liver regeneration

  • Insecticide

KETONES

Known to be the most common toxic substance in essential oil. They enter the blood-brain barrier more easily than other molecules. Essential oils high in ketones are Rosemary, Spike Lavender, Peppermint, Vetiver, Saje, Eucalyptus, Helichrysum and Tumeric. 

 

Safety:

  • We do not sell essential oils that have ketones with serious toxicity concerns as they are poisonous. Essential oils such as rosemary, spike lavender and sage should be used with caution. Essential oils with low ketone content such as Yarrow, Rosemary, Eucalyptus, Cedar, Helichrysum and Vetiver have minimal or any toxicity issues when used with caution.  

  • Essential oils with ketones (Fennel, Rosemary, Sage, Peppermint, Yarrow, Spike Lavender, and Lavender) should be avoided by those who are epileptic, pregnant, or have a high fever. Sage should not be used for children, pregnant or nursing women. Camphor can be fatal if ingested by infants or children. Camphor can also cause miscarriage only if used in fatal doses.

  • Ketones oils can cause liver damage, so they should be used for short periods of time and in small amounts. Can have a toxic effect on the nervous system if not used in the correct dosage. 

 

Therapeutic properties

  • ​Analgesic, calming, sedative and uplifting to the nervous system.

  • Cooling and stimulant

  • Decongestant

  • Anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory for skin and muscles.

  • Good for scar tissues

OXIDES

Highly concentrated essential oils found under this category are Cardamom, Eucalyptus, Spike Lavender, Ravinstara.

 

Safety: 

  • Can be used in small concentrations with asthmatics. Must be avoided in case of adverse reactions. Avoid steam distillation as it may trigger an attack. Asthma can be unique for any individual. The oils that seem to stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system and can create attacks are marjoram, rosemary and yarrow.

  • Do not use it with infants. Must be used with caution with children under the age of 10. If oxidized, it can cause skin irritation and sensitization.

 

Therapeutic Properties:

  • A very powerful aid in any respiratory illness.

  • Have antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial effects.

  • 1,8-cineole essential oils are stimulating to the respiratory system. They have a strong antiviral and expectorant effects known to stimulate the bronchi to cough up and eliminate mucus (mucolytic). 

  • Has a stimulating effect on the nervous system. Increase blood flow to the brain when inhaled.

  • Can help decrease coughing and have a positive effect on the shortness of breath.

  • ​Anticoagulant and decongestant on the circulatory and immune system. 

  • Expectorant, decongestant and mucolytic to the muscular and respiratory systems.​

PHENOLS

Examples of phenols are Thyme, Sage, Oregano, Summer Savory, Clove Bud and Cinnamon Leaf.

 

Safety :

  • Oils high in phenols are the most irritating oils to the skin and mucous membranes and can cause dermatitis and sensitization.

  • If phenols are present in high concentrations in an essential oil, use that essential oil in very low dilution ratios on the skin and for short periods of time.

  • They are not considered safe to use in baths.

  • A small amount should be used when diffused or used in blends.

  • Do not use oils high in phenols with babies and children.

  • Should not be used during pregnancy.

 

Therapeutic Properties: ​​

  • Use in acute illnesses and infections to stimulate the immune system. Known to be antiviral, bactericidal, decongestant. 

  • Warming, stimulant, uplifting to the nervous system.

  • Effective on the circulatory system

  • Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, muscle toners.

ACIDS

Very rare in essential oils

ESTERS

Generally safe and gentle to use. They can be a good choice to use on children, frail and old people. Just to name a few, essential oils containing esters are Clary Sage, Roman Chamomile, Helichrysum, Birch, Wintergreen, Jasmine, Bergamot, Ylang Ylang, Neroli, Geranium, Citronella, Marjoram and Petit Grain. 

 

Safety:

  • No major concerns for most essential oils. Wintergreen is unsafe to take internally as it can cause vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, headache, stomach pain and confusion. Should be used with children or pets. can be poisonous. Wintergreen and Birch are likely unsafe to use when breastfeeding.

  • Avoid Birch with anticoagulant medication, bleeding disorder or after a large surgery. Shouldn't be given to people with ADD/ADHD. 

 

Therapeutic Properties: ​​

  • Antispasmodic 

  • Can help for digestive cramps.

  • Effective antifungal as it can prevent fungal and yeast infections. 

  • Calming, cheering, healing, uplifting to the mind.

  • Soothe rashes

  • Anti-inflammatory to the body, muscles and joints. 

LACTONES/COUMARINS

They exist in small amounts in essential oils. Coumarins are mostly found in expressed oils and are known for their fruity odor. 

 

Safety:

  • Photo-toxic 

 

Therapeutic Properties: ​​

  • Calming and uplifting to the nervous system

  • Balancing

  • Decongestant, anticoagulant to the circulatory and immune systems

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